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The Peregrine Fund Notes From The Field

"Notes from the Field" provides frequent updates and pictures from our biologists and students who are working in the field or at our headquarters, the World Center for Birds of Prey.

Found 33 entries matching your request:

Ranthambhore: Haunt of the Royal Bengal Tiger by Munir Virani

Munir Virani — in Asian Vulture Crisis

Winding down the narrow cobbled road across the gallery of forests with its stunning backdrop of golden-drenched cliffs, it seemed only like yesterday when I first did this same stretch. Spotted deer and peafowl stood along the side of the road oblivious to the speeding open jeeps that carried tourists eager to get even a glimpse of one of India’s enigmatic icons – the Royal Bengal Tiger. As we maneuvered our way through the towering main gate of the impressive fort that also leads to the entrance of the park, I couldn’t help but realize that I have been coming to this magnificent place for the last 14 years. I have bittersweet memories of driving up the same road towards the fort in April 2000 and pointing out dead and moribund Oriental White-backed Vultures.

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Find more articles about Long-billed Vulture, Oriental White-backed Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Asia-Pacific


Pile of Vultures

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

It isn’t often that you get to watch a carcass from start to finish, but I got lucky. We came upon a single lioness finishing off a fresh wildebeest kill. On her own, she was only able to consume perhaps a quarter of the carcass and with vultures, hyenas, and jackals gathering around the lion was beginning to feel the pressure. So she left. Two hyenas moved in first feeding for a half hour they ate the bulk of the carcass with the occasional jackal or vulture rushing in to steal a soft piece of organs. Then it was the jackal’s turn. The pair rushed the vultures viciously, leaping and snarling to keep them away. The little dogs fed greedily, but their small stomaches were soon rounded and they slowly moved away. Down to the last half, the vultures swarmed, forming perhaps the most perfect pile I am yet to have seen. The wriggling brown mass of wings bounced above its prey as all fifty heads vanished into the food. Occassionally a full bird would eject itself from the mass standing on top of its comrades to gain enough leverage to leap away. Even with the mammals gone, the feeding frenzy of White-backed vultures was soon interrupted by their larger brethren, the Lappet-faced vultures. A pair jumped onto the mass, biting down on the backs of the birds beneath it. Once removed, the damage to the carcass was clear, perhaps only ten percent remained. The Lappet-faced vultures fed slowly and laboriously, ripping and tearing the last few tough pieces of tissue, while Hooded vultures wandered the edges of the carcass finding small treasures in the intestinal remnants. A pair of Tawny eagles made a brief appearance, but could do little more than steal a small piece of organs to fly away with as the vultures so clearly dominated the scene.

Find more articles about Hooded Vulture, Lappet-faced Vulture, Tawny Eagle, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Snake in the Grass

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

As I watched the squabbling vultures at a nearly finished wildebeest carcass, I noticed a Marabou stork behaving strangely. It jerked from side to side and leaned close to the ground as if about to pick something up, only to jump back again wings spread. I focused my binoculars on the bird to get a pick at what was happening. Lying in front of the cunning Marabou lay a long slim green snake, head raised in attack as the bird reached for it again. The snake lunged but the Marabou still got in a nice bite to the back and easily avoided the fangs. Again and again the snake lunged and the Marabou ducked until finally the Marabou grabbed the snake by the head. By this time another stork and an inquisitive African white-backed vulture had come to see what their friend might have. Given that sharing such a meal was unlikely, the disappointed birds walked way, shrugging their shoulders (as vultures always do) as they raced back to the carcass.

Snake in beak the Marabou shook its prey and the snake writhed, coiling its mass with little way of escaping. Within minutes the battle was over but the war was not yet one. The Marabou now held in its mouth a three foot snake that hung limply, but how to swallow such a beast would be a bit of a challenge. The first attempt the Marabou managed to get the snake about two feet down its throat before spitting it up again to try a new position. The second attempt went much smoother and like a magician pulling a long colorful line of scarves from his sleeve, the snake disappeared into the gullet of the stork.

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Find more articles about White-backed Vulture, Africa


Love Bite

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

Vultures aren’t generally known for their affection, but on rare occasions you do see acts of kindness. Merely the fact that vultures spend so much time at the carcass long after they are full is perhaps a sign of how much they enjoy each other’s company. Allopreening, when one animal cleans another, is surprisingly common and I have know seen it between members of the same species for all five species present in the Mara. Lappet-faced vulture pairs will lovingly comb through the feathers of their mate and juvenile White-backed vultures will preen each other as they stand on a mound near a carcass waiting their turn to feed. Today was the first time I had seen “preening” between species. A full juvenile Lappet-faced vulture stood next some other successful birds of the White-backed variety. She tilted her head and eyed them carefully as if this was perhaps her first close glance at one. She inspected the neighboring bird with interest. Then she reached towards it, gently, not in the typical aggressive style of feeding birds, but simply so that she might touch the other bird with her beak. The White-back stood by calmly, closing its eyes during the tender embrace. But then the inspection got a bit too personal. Perhaps enticed by the red (carcass-like) patches on the White-backs shoulders, the young Lappet went in for a nibble, testing to see if these “pieces of meat” might come off. In offense, the White-backed scooted back just out of reach of the next love bite.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Another Day at the Crossing

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

Nearly 600 wildebeest have drowned in the last week. It isn’t so much that the water is high as the fact that the wildebeest are stupid. After watching the crossing, it really is the only impression one is left with. Why, why do they cross that way? You sit as the herds approach, anticipation building as they near the beckoning water, filled with crocodiles and completed with a cliff. The wildebeest have reached the edge and take a drink before beginning what will likely be the hardest part of their journey.

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Find more articles about White-backed Vulture, Africa


Why we need vultures

Darcy Ogada — in East Africa Project

Let’s face it, most people are not smitten by vultures.In fact people often describe them as disgusting birds.

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Find more articles about California Condor, Rüppell's Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Photos from vulture field work

Munir Virani — in East Africa Project

Munir Virani, Shiv Kapila and Teeku Patel attached four GSM-GPS units on Ruppell's and African White-backed Vultures in the Masai Mara last week (October 17th, 2010). This is part of Corinne Kendall's PhD study where she is looking at how land-use changes in Kenya is affecting vulture diversity and abundance.

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Find more articles about Rüppell's Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


The Last Bird

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

With three units to go and not too much longer in Kenya, I was starting to get nervous. Would we be able to catch all the birds in time? I had my hopes set on one more Lappet (at least), one more adult African white-backed vulture, and perhaps another juvenile Ruppell’s. For this last set of trapping I was to work with a Ugandan student who wanted to learn how to trap vultures. Hoping to begin a large research project (possibly the makings of his PhD) on Lappet-faced vultures, Richard wanted to know how to trap, handle, attach units, and draw blood from these majestic birds. I had explained to Richard that Lappet-faced vultures could be quite difficult to catch and that I couldn’t guarantee we would get one during his stay, given my ever-tightening schedule. I was soon eating my words.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Excerpts from Vulture Trapping (Part 3)

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

It was the last carcass of the day. Our last chance, but also our best chance. This Lappet looked hungry. We put down the traps and within minutes, I was shouting with joy as we raced towards our second Lappet-faced vulture of the season.

biologists with vulture

Keith and John handle our second Lappet-faced vulture

The bird was so pre-occupied with feeding and attacking the White-backed vultures surrounding it that it didn’t seem to notice the blue beast sneaking up on it. The noose was clearly on its leg, so there was no need to wait. When we finally came up on the side of the carcass and jumped out of the car, the Lappet finally reacted. Wings stretched it was only able to move a few feet away, its foot firmly entangled and attached to the dead wildebeest on which it had been feeding.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Excerpts from Vulture Trapping (Part 2)

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

We awoke early. Today had to be the day. After so many near misses, I couldn’t imagine us going another day without trapping a Lappet-faced vulture. The evening before we had managed to stag an adult Lappet, but with its brute strength (and probably poor snaring), it had been able to pull the noose and get away before we could grab it. With one unit left, at least from our initial delivery of five (10 would arrive later in the week), I really wanted to get this one on this most elusive of vultures.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Excerpts from Vulture Trapping (Part 1)

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

In any field project, there is nothing more exhilarating, exhausting, and time-consuming than trapping animals. Vultures are no exception. Two and half busy weeks and I am still three vultures short. That said, it has been an amazing time and we have been able to put out 12 GSM-GPS units onto seven Ruppell’s vultures, three African white-backed vultures, and two Lappet-faced vultures. As usual, the Lappet-faced vultures continue to be the trickiest to trap. Not only are there fewer of them, but they prefer smaller carcasses (which are more difficult to trap at), they arrive late (which means you are more likely to catch someone else first), and they are a bit more shy. The key with Lappets is to find some really hungry, aggressive individual, but in and of itself that is rather tricky.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Naivasha Notes 4

Evan Buechley — in East Africa Project

A one-legged bicyclist pumps athletically as we pull away from the crammed old-town section of Nairobi, weaving through stalled cars and honking horns. The word “bustling” conveys no sense of these streets- it is a storm: people running in all directions; carts laden with spare tires, sacks of maize, 5 gallon jugs of water, anything you can imagine are towed by men- young or old- but always with bulging shoulder muscles; stalls on the streets offer all in one- butcher/hotel/cell-phone top-up/convenience store; street hawkers demand the purchase of sunglasses, cd’s and dvd’s, hideous safari hats and cheaply made trinkets, peanuts, and yogurt jugs baked in the equatorial sun and covered with a complex of dusts; matatus honk with customized horns and flashing lights; and cars weave in and out amongst pedestrians, bikers, and towering, fearless buses, down the complex maze of pitted and potholed, sign-less and lawless streets.

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Find more articles about Augur Buzzard, Rüppell's Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Another victim of poison: Lolly, a Lappet-faced vulture

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

LollyCatching a Lappet-faced vulture is always a struggle. At a typical large carcass you often find that these red-headed birds are outnumbered by their smaller white-backed cousins, sometimes with a single Lappet-faced vulture trying to fight for a scrap of wildebeest meat with over fifty African white-backed vultures. This makes capturing one a rare event. You can improve your odds by focusing on small carcasses or by putting the trap near the head of the carcass (a favorite area for these strong, large beaked scavengers), but even then you just have to get lucky.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Heading home

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

Sitting in Nairobi as I prepare for my flight back to the US, I can hardly believe it has been three months. The Mara and its vultures have once again kept me busy with too much to see and do. I already miss the rolling hills, expansive plains, and forested rivers that have surrounded me throughout the stay. I miss the cries of the African white-backed vultures, the gentle chirp of the massive Lappet-faced vultures, and the giggles of the hyenas that have come to steal the vultures’ find.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


The Last Bird

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

So with only a Tawny eagle to show for our efforts after three long days of trapping, we still had work to do. We had a test unit that needed to get deployed, so I could decide which units we would be using during our July trapping session. We really needed one more bird.

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Find more articles about Tawny Eagle, White-backed Vulture, Africa


What a day!

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

What a day! Let me start from the beginning. I woke up this morning at 5 AM. It was day two of trapping. Day one had been less than successful and I was beginning to wonder if I had been crazy to think that I could trap vultures during the low season. You see when the wildebeest come to Masai Mara in July so do the vultures. For three months, the park is overflowing with carcasses and scavengers. Trapping is made easy during this time, at least trapping African white-backed and Ruppell’s vultures, which are exceedingly common with upwards of sixty birds at each wildebeest carcass. But trapping Lappet-faced vultures is tricky. Only a few birds come to each carcass, they come late which means they are less likely to get trapped (since you have to put the trap down at the beginning and can’t go back and add it to a carcass without scaring all the birds), and they just tend to be a bit more cautious. So I had the “brilliant” idea that the low season would be the ideal time to trap Lappet-faced vultures with fewer African white-backs and Ruppell’s around. But after spending all of yesterday trying to trap with no success, I was starting to worry if I could trap anything this time of year. Nonetheless I awoke with a feeling of mixed panic and hope and set out to trap.

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Find more articles about Hooded Vulture, Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, White-headed Vulture, Africa


Rumble in the Jungle

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

Large carcasses are scarce this time of year. With the tall grass, the herbivores have plenty to eat and the big cats and hyenas have a hard time catching their prey, who have freedom to roam wherever they please. The cheetahs seem to be the only ones having any great success, perhaps because they rely more on speed than stealth. There also aren’t a lot of animals dying this time of year, precisely because there is so much lush food and water to go around. There are still calves being born, some of whom won’t make it and the occasional diseased or injured animal that might keel over. Needless to say, the vultures have to work hard to find their food and when they do discover something, they work even harder to ensure they get a bit.

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Find more articles about Hooded Vulture, Lappet-faced Vulture, Tawny Eagle, White-backed Vulture, White-headed Vulture, Africa


A Bad Day to be a Topi

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

Cheetahs on topiWhen we arrived they were already attached. All three of them, the brothers were back in action. I couldn’t believe it at first, how could cheetahs be hunting topi. You have to understand a topi is a large animal – similar size to a wildebeest or a small horse – it is the kind of animal I would expect a lion pride or hyena clan to bring down, but not cheetahs. Yet there I was watching it for real. Each cheetah had grabbed a leg and they were doing everything they could to bring down the topi. The cheetahs gnawed and clawed as they fought to stay attached. I wasn’t sure how they were going to actually kill the animal. Cheetahs generally have to strangle their prey. On a small gazelle that isn’t so complicated, but none of these boys were even near the windpipe. Then one went for it. With a lunge it wrapped itself around the neck and grabbed on. Horns near its delicate limbs, the cheetah scrambled to twist the topi and finally toppled it over. After the fall, the two brothers moved their chewing from the legs up to the soft belly. They were starting to eat before the animal had even expired. They had made a nice hole in the topi’s belly, just above the hindlimbs as the topi gave its last spasms of life. Its head came up in one last attempt at an escape, but it was no use. As the cheetah tightened its grip around the throat, the topi finally died. Then all three cheetahs sat momentarily in exhaustion, blood dripping from their furry lips.

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Find more articles about White-backed Vulture, Africa


The Mara

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

I’ve reached the point where I really know the Mara. Everyday we drive through different areas and I look for the elephant herd with the little calf or the warthog family with the six piglets that have somehow made it through the last two months. Each geographical entity – each river crossing, fig tree, and termite mound – has significance – that was where I saw the cheetah kill a few weeks ago or there is the tree where I trapped my first Lappet-faced vulture (I couldn’t stop smiling as I held the soft, feathery beast). I know all the landmarks and the hiding places of each little herd or creature.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Nasha returns

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

Just like the Ruppell's Vulture, the individual differences between the African white-backed Vultures is huge. Homer took an S-shaped flight—moving from Tsavo West National Park, briefly darting down into Serengeti and then up to Masai Mara once more. He probably traveled more than 300 miles just this week.

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Find more articles about Rüppell's Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


The world is a scavenger’s stage

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

We sat at a carcass for nearly five hours yesterday. Not because nothing came, but because the vultures refused to leave. Jackals found our carcass early and I’m afraid the birds didn’t get much, but it didn’t stop them from coming. We had 11 African white-backed vultures, 5 Lappet-faced vultures, and a couple of Hooded vultures. The white-headed vultures have been noticeably absent but the Hoodeds seem to be coming back this year.

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Find more articles about Hooded Vulture, Lappet-faced Vulture, White-backed Vulture, White-headed Vulture, Africa


Lions, hyenas, and dogs, oh my

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

The sky is speaking. It grumbles and rumbles and crackles, squealing with rage like a toddler unable to get its way. Then finally it breaks like the thunder that accompanies it, the rain crashed to earth and splatters the floor. Luckily, I am done for the day. For some reason, it has been raining mainly in the afternoons. This is good news for me since the rain virtually shuts down vulture activity. As is I have time for my carcass experiments and transects in the morning and seem to get done just as the sky is threatening to fall. It is a hard rain and I sit outside under canvas surrounded by the droplets. Within seconds pools of mud form and I can only wonder what the roads will be like tomorrow. Oh my God, it is hailing!! I can’t believe it. At first, it looked like little frogs were jumping around magically erupting from the soil (which they are, one just joined me under the tent), but that was actually hail. I just got up and grabbed a piece to confirm and indeed, ice just fell from the sky in Africa. Be amazed! But now it is just raining again.

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Find more articles about Bateleur, Hooded Vulture, Lappet-faced Vulture, Tawny Eagle, White-backed Vulture, White-headed Vulture, Africa


Home range size

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

The GSM-GPS transmitters have now been on the vultures for over six months. With over 8000 data points, we can learn a lot from the movement of these fourteen birds. Today I calculated the home range size or the size of the area that a single bird has used based on every location point that we have. The home range sizes are astounding. A single bird, an African White-backed vulture to be exact, can have a range size of up to 97,000 km2 (37,500 mi2). That is almost the size of Pennsylvania, about 1/6 the size of Kenya, and nearly twice the size of one of the largest protected parks in Africa (Selous Game Reserve in Tanzania). In just six months, a single bird can thus span far beyond the entire Serengeti-Mara ecosystem, using many of the other protected areas scattered around southern Kenya and northern Tanzania. If just one individual needs such a large area to survive, it is easy to imagine why the conservation of these species is so complicated. No park will ever to large enough to protect the entire range of even a single individual for most vulture species. Instead we must hope that the birds can travel safely over cities, towns, villages, farms, and livestock pastures. Sadly with people poisoning carcasses, we know that safe passage isn’t guaranteed. With such huge range sizes we know something else. The vultures have a lot to tell us about ecosystem health. Their survival and population numbers give us information not just about a single park, but about the entire system of protected areas in East Africa. Vultures could be the key to monitoring these preserves and the areas around them, providing us with vital information about the other wildlife species they depend on for food and about the use of poisons, chemicals, and pollution across these large land areas on which they rely. By studying them, we are learning not just about the vultures but about the larger East African savanna.

Find more articles about White-backed Vulture, Africa


Back in the MMNR

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

This week, Quagmire, an adult African white-backed Vulture, decided to leave the wildebeest. Initially this 10 pound bird was in Serengeti, moving to the southern tip where many of the migratory wildebeest are likely to be hanging out these days. But then he turned north returning to Masai Mara National Reserve (MMNR).

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Find more articles about White-backed Vulture, Africa


Two birds in the bush

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

Just like the Ruppell's Vulture, the individual differences between the African white-backed Vultures is huge. Homer took an S-shaped flight—moving from Tsavo West National Park, briefly darting down into Serengeti and then up to Masai Mara once more.

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Find more articles about Rüppell's Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Vulture travel updates

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

When last we left our intrepid traveling vultures, we had noted the amazing differences between the small, gregarious African white-backed vulture, the cliff-nesting Ruppell's Vulture, and the large and solitary Lappet-faced Vulture. During the last two weeks, Homer, our African White-backed Vulture has continued his movements from Masai Mara to the Tsavo National Park and even moved east of the large parks towards the border of Tanzania. Roger, the Ruppell's Vulture has returned from the north. Recently, he has stayed dangerously far from the safety of the national parks and other protected areas, choosing to home in on the Athi River and Magadi area, a beautiful place of tall Acacias and flowing streams.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, Rüppell's Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Vulture travels

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

While Roger wandered northwest, other birds seemed to stay at home for the holidays or took their travels between two of the best parks in Kenya, Masai Mara National Reserve and Tsavo. Homer, one of the first adult African White-backed Vultures we tagged, went from Tsavo to Masai Mara and back this last month. Unlike Roger, the Ruppell's vulture, who spread his movement fairly evenly, Homer tended to travel quickly going from one destination to the other in only three to five days (not bad given that it is nearly 300 km each way).

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, Rüppell's Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Where and how - Questions answered

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

It is not just the where of vulture movement that we learn from the GSM-GPS units, it is also the how.  How far does a vulture travel in a day?  At what speed might it average while soaring above the savannas?

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Find more articles about White-backed Vulture, Africa


Where do the vultures go when the wildebeest leave Masai Mara?

Corinne Kendall — in East Africa Project

Each year from July to October, Masai Mara National Reserve springs to life as over a million wildebeest enter the park, followed by thousands of zebras and Thompson's gazelles. During this migratory period, this smorgasbord of food brings new life to the carnivores; cheetahs, lions, hyenas, and leopards abound as they are able to support their cubs, thanks to the wildebeest moveable feast. The migratory animals that are suddenly densely packed in the less than 2000 square kilometer reserve ensure a reliable supply of carcasses. Vultures fly in from hundreds of kilometers to take advantage of it.

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Find more articles about Lappet-faced Vulture, Rüppell's Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Africa


Student Notes: Muhammad Arshad

Muhammad Arshad — in Asian Vulture Crisis

"Everybody knows that the populations of white-backed vultures are decreasing at an alarming rate, but nobody knows why they are dying. In India researchers pointed out that vultures are in danger. Because of this situation, The Peregrine Fund began the Asian Vulture Crisis Project to know what the cause of the vulture mortality is. In Pakistan; Dholewala, Toawala and Changa Manga were selected to study the vultures.

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Find more articles about White-backed Vulture, Asia-Pacific


Veterinary Work on White-Backed Vultures in Pakistan

Lindsay Oaks — in Asian Vulture Crisis

Lindsay Oaks, DVM, PhD, Dip. ACVM is an assistant professor in the Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology at Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. He is a long-time friend and collaborator of The Peregrine Fund’s, and an expert on avian viral diseases. When early studies on dying vultures in India suggested that an infectious, possibly viral, disease might be responsible for the mortality causing the population crash, The Peregrine Fund asked Lindsay to develop and coordinate a worldwide team of laboratories and experts to identify the disease agent as quickly as possible.

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Find more articles about White-backed Vulture, Asia-Pacific


Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve Munir Virani in Koshi Camp, Nepal

Munir Virani — in Asian Vulture Crisis

Only those scientists working on the Asian Vulture Crisis project in south Asia know how many chickens have been "sacrificed" in order to save the vultures from extinction.  At this moment, I am in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in lowland Nepal with local biologist Jeet Bahadur Giri (aka JB) and his assistants Badri and Chakra.  We are watching nest number five, one of only two Slender-billed Vulture nests built high up a Kapok tree.  Our lunch comprises of fried chicken (our dinner the previous night was chicken curry and this evening we have been promised a special Nepali chicken treat!!).  In the distance, a small herd of Indian Wild Buffalo glares at us nervously, while the enchanting cry of a Crested Serpent Eagle alerts us of impending perils in this magnificent riverine forest. 

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Find more articles about Long-billed Vulture, Slender-billed Vulture, White-backed Vulture, Asia-Pacific


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